chapter  14
68 Pages

Chapter Brief Characteristics of Other Important Food Allergens

Bacteria and Their Metabolites (Bacterial Enzymes) .................... 322 14.1.3 Characteristics of Mold Allergens and Some

Mold-Derived Preparations............................................................ 326 14.1.4 Other Microorganisms and Metabolites as Sources

of Allergens in Food ...................................................................... 327 14.1.5 Application of Microorganisms and Enzymes for

Modifying Allergenic Properties ................................................... 328 14.1.5.1 The Possibility of Substrate Antigenic Modi cation

in Fermentation Processes ............................................. 329 14.1.6 Perspectives on the Use of Microorganisms and Enzymatic

Preparations for Shaping Health Bene cial Properties of Food Products ............................................................................ 330

References ..............................................................................................................331 14.2 Plant Food Allergens ................................................................................... 334

14.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................... 334 14.2.2 The Prolamin Superfamily ............................................................ 339 14.2.3 2S Albumins .................................................................................. 339 14.2.4 Plant Nonspeci c Lipid Transfer Proteins .................................... 341 14.2.5 α-Amylases ................................................................................... 342 14.2.6 Cereal Prolamins ........................................................................... 343 14.2.7 The Cupin Superfamily ................................................................. 343

14.2.8 Germins ......................................................................................... 343 14.2.9 Vicillins ......................................................................................... 343 14.2.10 Legumins ....................................................................................... 343 14.2.11 Pro lins .........................................................................................344 14.2.12 Bet v 1 Superfamily ....................................................................... 345 14.2.13 Class I Chitinases and the Hevein-Like Domain...........................346 14.2.14 Papain-Like Cysteine Proteases .................................................... 347 14.2.15 Thaumatin-Like Proteins ............................................................... 347 14.2.16 Oleosins ......................................................................................... 347 14.2.17 Kunitz-Type Protease Inhibitors .................................................... 347 14.2.18 Thioredoxins .................................................................................348 14.2.19 β-Amylases ...................................................................................348 14.2.20 Cystatins ........................................................................................348 14.2.21 Expansins ...................................................................................... 349 14.2.22 Glycoside Hydrolases.................................................................... 349 14.2.23 Iso avone Reductases ................................................................... 349 14.2.24 Subtilisin-Like Serine Proteases ................................................... 349 14.2.25 Berberine Bridge Enzymes ........................................................... 350 14.2.26 Chlorophyll Binding Proteins ....................................................... 350 14.2.27 Patatin Family ............................................................................... 350 14.2.28 Concluding Remarks ..................................................................... 351

References ..............................................................................................................351 14.3 Other Ingested Animal Allergens: From Frogs to Insects ........................... 356

14.3.1 Characteristics of Additional Allergens Causing Allergic Reaction after Ingestion .................................................. 356

14.3.2 Marine Organisms (Excluding Decapod Crustacean, Mollusk, and Fish) ........................................................................ 356

14.3.3 Insects ............................................................................................ 359 14.3.4 Other Animal Tissue ...................................................................... 361

References ..............................................................................................................361 14.4 Food Additives as Food Allergens .............................................................. 363

14.4.1 General Description of Food Additives ......................................... 363 14.4.2 Adverse Reactions to Food Additives ........................................... 367 14.4.3 Spices: Additives Associated with Adverse

Reaction......................................................................................... 373 14.4.4 Antioxidants Associated with Adverse Reactions ......................... 378 14.4.5 Preservatives Associated with Adverse Reactions ........................ 378 14.4.6 Flavoring Additives Associated with Adverse

Reactions ....................................................................................... 379 14.4.7 Colorings as Additives Associated with Adverse

Reactions ....................................................................................... 379 14.4.8 Glutamic Acid and Monosodium Glutamate.................................380 14.4.9 Other Important Food Additives Associated

with Adverse Reactions .................................................................380 14.4.10 Conclusions ................................................................................... 382

References ..............................................................................................................382

Lucjan Je˛drychowski