chapter  11
Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Part III Hydrolysis and Fermentation
Pages 16

Lignocellulose is the most abundant natural renewable resource and is one of the preferred choices for the production of bioethanol. As a substrate for bioethanol production it has a barrier in its complex structure, which resists hydrolysis. For lignocellulose to be amenable to fermentation, treatments are necessary that release

Abstract .................................................................................................................. 159 11.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 160 11.2 Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass ........................................................ 160

11.2.1 Acid Hydrolysis ............................................................................... 160 11.2.1.1 Dilute Acid Hydrolysis ..................................................... 160 11.2.1.2 Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis ......................................... 162

11.3 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass ...................................... 163 11.3.1 Factors Governing Enzymatic Hydrolysis ...................................... 164 11.3.2 Detoxication .................................................................................. 166

11.3.2.1 Biological Detoxication Methods .................................. 166 11.3.2.2 Physical Detoxication Methods .................................... 167 11.3.2.3 Chemical Detoxication Methods .................................. 167

11.4 Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol .................................. 167 11.4.1 Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) ................................ 167 11.4.2 Direct Microbial Conversion (DMC) .............................................. 167 11.4.3 Simultaneous Saccharication and Fermentation (SSF) ................ 168

11.5 Recombinant DNA Approaches ................................................................... 168 11.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects................................................................ 169 References.............................................................................................................. 170

monomeric sugars, which can be converted to ethanol by microbial fermentation. The current state of the art on acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and subsequent microbial fermentation to ethanol are described in this chapter. Approaches for detoxication of the lignocellulose hydrolysate for effective fermentation to ethanol are also discussed.