chapter  2
World Biofuel Scenario
Pages 16

The term biofuel refers to liquid or gaseous fuels mainly for the transport sector that are predominantly produced from plant biomass. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. These include energy security, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues, mainly related to the rural sector. A large number of research projects in the eld of thermochemical and biochemical conversion of biomass, mainly on liquefaction, pyrolysis, and gasication, have been carried out. Liquefaction is a thermochemical conversion process of biomass or other organic matters into primarily liquid oil products in the presence of a reducing reagent, for example, carbon monoxide or hydrogen. Pyrolysis products are divided into a volatile fraction, consisting of gases, vapors, and tar components, and a carbon-rich solid residue. The gasication of biomass is a thermal treatment, which results in a high production of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. It is possible that wood, straw, and even household wastes may be economically converted to bioethanol. Bioethanol is derived from alcoholic fermentation of sucrose or simple sugars, which are produced from biomass by hydrolysis process. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Methanol is mainly manufactured from natural gas, but biomass can also be gasied to methanol. Methanol can be produced

Abstract .................................................................................................................... 13 2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 14 2.2 Biomass Liquefaction ..................................................................................... 15 2.3 Biomass Pyrolysis .......................................................................................... 16 2.4 Biomass Gasication ...................................................................................... 18 2.5 Green Diesel Fuel from Bio-Syngas via Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis................ 19 2.6 Bio-Alcohols from Biomass ........................................................................... 21 2.7 Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils ........................................................................24 2.8 The Future of Biomass ...................................................................................24 2.9 Global Biofuel Scenario .................................................................................25 2.10 Conclusions ....................................................................................................27 References................................................................................................................27