Ionic Polymer–Metal Nanocomposites (IPMNCs): Fundamentals
Ionic polymeric materials suitably made into a functionally graded composite with a conductor (
ionic polymer conductor nanocomposite
ionic polymer-metal nanocomposites
[IPMNCs]) such as a metal or synthetic metal such as conductive polymers or graphite that act as a distributed electrode can exhibit large dynamic deformation if placed in a time-varying electric field (see fig. 2.1) (Oguro et al., 1993; Shahinpoor 1991, 1992, 1993; Shahinpoor and Kim, 2001c). Typical experimental deflection curves are depicted in figures 2.2(a), 2.2(b), 2.2(c), and 2.2(d).