Chapter Ion Exchange
Ion exchange, in general, describes the process of interchange of ions between an ion-exchange material and a liquid electrolyte solution [1-5]. It is an effi cient and fl exible method of conditioning the feed water for different processes, wastewater treatment, and as well for the modifi cation of materials which possess an ion-exchange property. Among the best-known inorganic compounds with ion-exchange behavior are zeolites, both natural and synthetic [1-4]. However, other inorganic materials, for example, clays, zirconium phosphates, ferrocyanides, titanates, apatites, hydrotalcites , and many coals also have ion-exchange properties . Besides, polymeric resins can be considered as the most important industrial ion-exchange material currently applied in industry .