Ceramics are polycrystalline inorganic nonmetallic compounds, including metallic oxides, silicates, carbides and various refractory hydrides, suldes. Humans are also full of natural ceramics, such as bones and teeth. The ceramics used to augment or replace various parts of the body, particularly bone, are called bioceramics and are widely used in many medical applications, such as hip prosthesis, cardiac valves, and dental implants, because of their relative inertness to body uids, high compressive strength, and aesthetic appearance. Certain type of glasses and glass-ceramics are also used for biomedical applications as bone substitutes. Some carbons have found use as biomedical implants, especially for their blood compatibility in heart valves. The various applications of bioceramics are listed in Table 7.1. This chapter describes the different types of bioceramics, their tissue response, the advantages of nanobioceramics, and some of their processing methods.