Basics of Human Biology
Biomaterials intended for human applications undergo cellular/tissue responses upon implantation. Therefore, the person dealing with biomaterials must be at least familiar with the basics of the structure and function of the human body and fundamental aspects of biological responses to biomaterials. This chapter provides the in vitro and in vivo assessment of tissue responses to biomaterials to determine the intended performance characteristics and biocompatibility considerations. Biocompatibility is generally dened as the ability of biomaterial to perform with an appropriate host response in a specic application, and biocompatibility assessment is a measure of the magnitude and duration of the adverse changes in homeostatic mechanisms that determine the host response. Thus, the goal of biological response evaluation is to predict the quality of biomaterial, whether it has the potential to harm the patient or not, by evaluating conditions that simulate clinical use. To understand the key aspects of biological responses to any biomaterial in the body, it is necessary to acquire sufcient knowledge of the basic components of the human body, how they are put together in a systematic way, and how they function in the bodily environment. In the following sections, we focus our attention on the essentials of anatomy and physiology of the human body.