chapter  15
24 Pages

- Acellular Tubular Grafts Constructed from Natural Materials in Vascular Tissue Engineering: From Bench to Bedside

Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................390 15.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................390 15.2 What to Mimic: The Native Arterial Wall ........................................................................... 391 15.3 Current Status ....................................................................................................................... 392

15.3.1 Synthetic Grafts ........................................................................................................ 392 15.3.2 Synthetic Graft Functionalization with ECM-Based Biomolecules ......................... 392

15.4 Natural Materials: Source and Origin .................................................................................. 393 15.4.1 General...................................................................................................................... 393 15.4.2 Collagen .................................................................................................................... 393 15.4.3 Elastin ....................................................................................................................... 394 15.4.4 Glycosaminoglycans ................................................................................................. 394

15.5 Graft Fabrication................................................................................................................... 395 15.5.1 Tissue Engineering Approach: Acellular versus Cellular ........................................ 395 15.5.2 Graft Fabrication by Decellularization Procedures .................................................. 396 15.5.3 Fabrication from Scratch: Molecularly Dened Grafts ............................................ 396 15.5.4 Graft Cross-Linking and Stabilization ..................................................................... 399 15.5.5 Graft Functionalization ............................................................................................ 399

15.5.5.1 Growth Factors........................................................................................... 399 15.5.5.2 Endothelialization ...................................................................................... 399

15.6 Performance Monitoring ......................................................................................................400 15.6.1 Graft Analyses and In Vitro Screening ....................................................................400 15.6.2 Animal Models ......................................................................................................... 401

15.7 Clinical Use of Acellular Natural Grafts ..............................................................................404 15.8 Conclusion and Future Outlook ............................................................................................405 Acknowledgment ...........................................................................................................................405 References ......................................................................................................................................406