chapter  17
24 Pages

1Chapter 7 The Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil: Biotic Responses to Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts in the Last Decades (1979–2008)

Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... 434 17.1 History of the Patos-Mirim Lagoon System ........................................................................ 434

17.1.1 Geological Evolution ................................................................................................ 434 17.1.2 Natural Protection Areas .......................................................................................... 435

17.2 The Microtidal Patos Lagoon Estuary .................................................................................. 436 17.2.1 Water Exchange, Salinity, and Temperature ............................................................. 436 17.2.2 Dissolved Inorganic Nutrients .................................................................................. 437 17.2.3 Estuarine Habitats, Biological Components, and Processes .................................... 439

17.2.3.1 Primary Producers ..................................................................................... 439 17.2.3.2 Secondary Producers .................................................................................440

17.3 Biotic Responses to Environmental Changes .......................................................................442 17.3.1 Impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).................................................... 443