Background and Status
Environmental evaluation includes the collection, detection, and measurement of representative samples from an environmental matrix such as air, water, soil, and even food and beverages. This chapter provides a summary of the major forms of major monitoring and analytic instrumentation that are used to evaluate several types of physical, chemical, and biological agents associated with occupational, residential, and public indoor settings. The air is a common matrix sampled and analyzed in these environmental settings because inhalation of contaminated air is considered a primary mode of toxic or pathogenic agent entry. In addition, the air serves as a major matrix for elevated sound levels, extremes of temperature and humidity, and transfer of radiation energies. Accordingly, this chapter only focuses on related instrumentation for detecting and measuring contaminants and energies in the air matrix. It must be noted, however, that although the majority of the instrumentation summarized in this chapter is used mainly to evaluate occupational and nonoccupational exposures in indoor environments, some also have application for evaluation of outdoor air contaminants and energies.