chapter  4
20 Pages

## Effects of Endovascular Intervention on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and Europe, accounting for approximately half of all deaths [1,2]. The most common form of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, which is commonly treated using balloon angioplasty usually in conjunction with the deployment of a stent. Stent deployment helps to hold the vessel open following the local injury caused by balloon in”ation and prevents elastic recoil. Stenting has been shown to signi™cantly reduce restenosis rates from approximately 20% to 50% without a stent to about 10%–30% with stent deployment [3]. However, this still leaves signi™cant room for improvement.