chapter  21
20 Pages

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mechanobiology

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of plastic-adherent cells that has clonogenic capacity and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. They can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, and several other postnatal connective tissues [1]. Unlike the hematopoietic system, where the positive and negative selection of speci™c surface markers facilitates

21.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 457 21.2 Regulation of MSC Fate by Externally Applied Forces ....................................................... 458

21.2.1 Cell Culture Systems ................................................................................................ 458 21.2.1.1 Fluid Flow-Induced Shear Stress ............................................................... 458 21.2.1.2 Substrate Deformation ............................................................................... 459 21.2.1.3 Compressive Loading ................................................................................ 459

21.2.2 Osteogenic Differentiation ........................................................................................ 459 21.2.3 Chondrogenic Differentiation ...................................................................................460 21.2.4 Smooth Muscle Differentiation ................................................................................ 461 21.2.5 Tenogenic Differentiation ......................................................................................... 462 21.2.6 Endothelial Cell Differentiation ............................................................................... 462

21.3 Regulation of MSC Fate by Intracellularly Generated Force ............................................... 462 21.3.1 Cell-Cell Interactions and Geometry Sensing .........................................................463 21.3.2 Nanotopography........................................................................................................463 21.3.3 Extracellular Matrix Mechanics ...............................................................................464