Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are among the most common musculoskeletal disorders, and can severely compromise quality of life in both men and women. Recognition of the devastating morbidity and mortality associated with musculoskeletal diseases led to the worldwide initiative, ‘‘The Bone and Joint Decade’’ (2000-2010) , which has been endorsed by the United Nations and World Health Organization, with many countries throughout the world participating as National Action Networks. The overall mission of the Bone and Joint Decade is to ‘‘promote musculoskeletal health and musculoskeletal science worldwide,’’ with one of the speciﬁc objectives being the advancement of understanding of musculoskeletal disorders and improve the prevention and treatment through research. Nutrition has a unique role in preserving and maintaining musculoskeletal health. This chapter aims to build on the speciﬁc objective stated above. It will discuss the etiology of
osteoporosis, followed by a discussion of sex-based differences in bone health in response to nutritional interventions to aid in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Similarly, osteoarthritis will be discussed, with focus on its etiology and sexbased responses to nutritional interventions as well as weight reduction. Key areas for future research are also indicated.