chapter  Chapter 11
13 Pages

Equations for Plasmas

WithAkira Yoshizawa, Sanae-I Itoh, Kimitaka Itoh

One distinct feature of a plasma as a continuous medium is that the responses of the electrons and ions are not identical, hence they induce collective electromagnetic fields. In addition, inhomogeneities often exist in the plasma number density, pressure and velocity, and these have important roles in the evolution of turbulence. Therefore various plasma quantities together with the electromagnetic fields must be simultaneously solved to understand the turbulence dynamics in plasmas.