chapter
Contents
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Preface to the Second Edition iii Preface to the First Edition v Contributors xi

PART I HISTORY, DEFINITIONS, AND PREVALENCE

1. Historical Framework for the Development of Ideas About Obesity 1 George A. Bray

2. Evaluation of Total and Regional Adiposity 33 Steven B. Heymsfield, Richard N. Baumgartner, David B. Allison, Wei Shen, ZiMian Wang, and Robert Ross

3. Ethnic and Geographic Influences on Body Composition 81 Paul Deurenberg and Mabel Deurenberg-Yap

4. Prevalence of Obesity in Adults: The Global Epidemic 93 Jacob C. Seidell and Aila M. Rissanen

5. Fetal Origins of Obesity 109 David J. P. Barker

6. Pediatric Overweight: An Overview 117 Bettylou Sherry and William H. Dietz

7. Obesity in the Elderly: Prevalence, Consequences, and Treatment 135 Robert S. Schwartz

8. Economic Costs of Obesity 149 Ian D. Caterson, Janet Franklin, and Graham A. Colditz

PART II ETIOLOGY

9. Genetics of Human Obesity 157 Claude Bouchard, Louis Pe´russe, Treva Rice, and D. C. Rao

vii

10. Molecular Genetics of Rodent and Human Single Gene Mutations Affecting Body Composition 201 Streamson Chua, Jr., Kathleen Graham Lomax, and Rudolph L. Leibel

11. Rodent Models of Obesity 255 David A. York

12. Primates in the Study of Aging-Associated Obesity 283 Barbara C. Hansen

13. Behavioral Neuroscience and Obesity 301 Sarah F. Leibowitz and Bartley G. Hoebel

14. Experimental Studies on the Control of Food Intake 373 Henry S. Koopmans

15. Diet Composition and the Control of Food Intake in Humans 427 John E. Blundell and James Stubbs

16. Central Integration of Peripheral Signals in the Regulation of Food Intake and Energy Balance: Role of Leptin and Insulin 461 L. Arthur Campfield, Francoise J. Smith, and Bernard Jeanrenaud

17. Development of White Adipose Tissue 481 Ge´rard Ailhaud and Hans Hauner

18. Lipolysis and Lipid Mobilization in Human Adipose Tissue 515 Dominique Langin and Max Lafontan

19. Lipodystrophy and Lipoatrophy 533 Steven R. Smith

20. Uncoupling Proteins 539 Daniel Ricquier and Leslie P. Kozak

21. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor g and the Transcriptional Control of Adipogenesis and Metabolism 559 Lluis Fajas and Johan Auwerx

22. Biology of Visceral Adipose Tissue 589 Susan K. Fried and Robert R. Ross

23. Resting Energy Expenditure, Thermic Effect of Food, and Total Energy Expenditure 615 Yves Schutz and Eric Je´quier

24. Energy Expenditure in Physical Activity 631 James O. Hill, W. H. M. Saris, and James A. Levine

25. Endocrine Determinants of Obesity 655 Jonathan H. Pinkney and Peter G. Kopelman

26. Endocrine Determinants of Fat Distribution 671 Renato Pasquali, Valentina Vicennati, and Uberto Pagotto

27. Sympathoadrenal System and Metabolism 693 Eric Ravussin and Ian Andrew Macdonald

28. Energy Expenditure and Substrate Oxidation 705 Jean-Pierre Flatt and Angelo Tremblay

29. Skeletal Muscle and Obesity 733 David E. Kelley and Len Storlien

30. Nutrient Partitioning 753 Samyah Shadid and Michael D. Jensen

PART III PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

31. Obesity and Mortality Rates 767 Kevin R. Fontaine and David B. Allison

32. Etiology of the Metabolic Syndrome 787 Per Bjo¨rntorp

33. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Major Health Outcomes 813 JoAnn E. Manson, Patrick J. Skerrett, and Walter C. Willett

34. Effects of Obesity on the Cardiovascular System 825 Edward Saltzman and Peter N. Benotti

35. Obesity and Lipoprotein Metabolism 845 Jean-Pierre Despre´s and Ronald M. Krauss

36. Obesity and Blood Pressure Regulation 873 Albert P. Rocchini

37. Obesity and Diabetes 899 Jeanine Albu and F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer

38. Obesity and Gallbladder Disease 919 Cynthia W. Ko and Sum P. Lee

39. Obesity and Pulmonary Function 935 Shyam Subramanian and Kingman P. Strohl

40. Obesity, Arthritis, and Gout 953 Anita Wluka, Tim D. Spector, and Flavia M. Cicuttini

41. Obesity, Pregnancy, and Infertility 967 Stephan Ro¨ssner

42. Physical Activity, Obesity, and Health Outcomes 983 William J. Wilkinson and Steven N. Blair

43. Obesity and Quality of Life 1005 Donald A. Williamson and Patrick M. O’Neil

Index 1023