The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg) is one of three PPARs, which together constitute a distinct subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily and which are all activated by naturally occurring fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives. PPARg heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptors (RXR) and alters the transcription of numerous target genes after binding to speciﬁc response elements or PPREs, which are found in several genes involved in fat metabolism. Coordinate regulation of genes involved in fat uptake and storage by PPARg underlies its eﬀects on adipocyte diﬀerentiation. PPARg’s claim to fame is due to its pivotal roles in adipogenesis and its implication in insulin sensitization. A number of additional functions were attributed to PPARg, which suggests a more pleiotropic role aﬀecting multiple fundamental pathways in the cell with wide-ranging biomedical implications.