2Chapter 1 Lycopene Oxidation, Uptake, and Activity in Human Prostate Cell Cultures
FIGURE 21.1 (See color insert following page 336.) Normal tissue from human prostate showing secretory section-hematoxilin and eosin staining showing epithelial cells lining secretory ducts backed by basal and stromal cells. (Courtesy of A. Brollo, Wikimedia Commons, 2005.)
useful in differentiating the effects of lycopene versus the mixture of biologically active compounds in tomatoes as well as the exploration of plausible mechanisms of action. Cell culture studies have the advantage of exploring the modulation of cellular processes in single cell types using known concentrations of lycopene and can be used to evaluate possible synergies between other tomato constituents, such as polyphenolic compounds, other carotenoids, and vitamin E. In order to fully appreciate the results of cell culture studies using lycopene alone or lycopene in combination with other biologically active compounds, it is important to understand (1) prostate biology, (2) the role of the various cells in prostate function, (3) which cells are the most vulnerable to the carcinogenic process and how that process proceeds, and (4) the origin of each of the prostatic cell lines that has been used and its characteristics.