chapter  16
16 Pages

Genetic Engineering of Grapevine and Progress toward Commercial Deployment

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 318 Grape Genetic Transformation ............................................................................... 318

Culture Systems ................................................................................................ 319 Methods of Gene Insertion ................................................................................ 319 Marker Genes .................................................................................................... 319 Functional Genes ............................................................................................... 319 Field Tests ......................................................................................................... 320

Issues Related to Commercialization of Transgenic Grapevines ........................... 322 Native Species and Gene Flow .......................................................................... 322

Grape Speciation and Range ........................................................................ 322 Potential for Environmental Risk ................................................................. 322

Potential Impacts of Transgene Flow in Grapevine .......................................... 323 Potential for Transgene Pollen Flow into Non-GE Vineyards ...................... 323 Potential for Contamination of Commercial Vineyards via Seed ................. 324 Potential for Transgene Movement into Native Vitis Populations ................ 324

Mitigating Environmental Risks via Cisgenics Engineering ............................ 324 Endogenous Genes ....................................................................................... 324 Marker-Free Plants ....................................................................................... 326 Rootstocks .................................................................................................... 327

Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 327 References .............................................................................................................. 327

Grapevine is the world’s most valuable fruit crop due to its multipurpose uses for fresh fruit, wine, and other processed products. While many species of grapevine exist, as described below, the predominant species used in commerce is Vitis vinifera L. This species originated in the Middle East and is adapted to a Mediterranean environment. It has diversi‰ed into hundreds of varieties since antiquity. Major production areas in the world tend to be those possessing Mediterranean climatic conditions. Despite widespread consumption of grape products, attempts to grow V. vinifera in climates that are too cold or, especially, too humid have met with failure. It would be advantageous to have V. vinifera varieties with more resistance to diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses in order to foster more widespread production and thus address local market needs and opportunities.