Trust but Verify (Accountability)
Accountability ensures that actions taken on a system can be traced back to the individual or individuals who performed those actions. Th is is a huge deterrent against illicit activities and false claims. Properly executed, accountability makes it nearly impossible for someone to deny he performed a speciﬁ c action or, conversely, to accuse others of doing something they did not do. Accountability can also support rapid response by detecting illicit activities, alerting security personnel, and taking preventative actions to stop or limit those activities. Accountability provides evidence of compliance to statutory, regulatory and contractual requirements, tracks the usage and distribution of intellectual property, and can be a signiﬁ cant market diﬀ erentiator for organizations that do it properly. Th is chapter sets forth the control objectives for accountability and suggests ways in which these objectives can be achieved within various types of computing enclaves.