Somewhere in the continuum that stretches between no fixed fire protection at all-and a completely sprinklered building-exists a solid point representative of the level of protection provided by standpipe systems. These fixed piping systems are found within hotels, high-rise structures, schools, jails, parking garages, and various industrial occupancies. The primary reference used when designing standpipes is National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) pamphlet #14, which defines the standpipe system as an arrangement of piping, valves, and hose connections that are located in such a manner that water can be discharged in streams or spray through attached hose nozzles for the purpose of extinguishing a fire. Somebody, usually a firefighter, opens a standpipe valve when water is needed to combat fire. In short, standpipes provide a means of manually applying water to fires within structures.