Carbon Materials In Environmental Applications
III. Gas Phase Applications 10 A. Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Air 10 B. Purification of Landfill Gas 18 C. Air Conditioning 19 D. Mercury Vapor Adsorption 20 E. Protective Filters 20 F. Flue Gas Cleanup 21 G. Gas Storage on Activated Carbons 31
IV. Water Treatment 34 A. Introduction 34 B. Properties of Activated Carbons for Water Treatment 35 C. Bacterial Colonization 37 D. Potable Water Treatment Processes 38 E. Groundwater Treatment 40 F. Domestic Water Treatment Units 42
V. Carbon Supports for Zero-Valent Metal Dehalogenation 43 A. Background: Zero-Valent Metal Dehalogenation 43 B. Carbon-Supported Zinc Catalysts 44
VI. Other Applications 47 A. Detectors and Measuring Devices 47 B. Medical Applications of Carbon 53
VII. Conclusions 58 References 59 Patent References 65
The tremendous diversity that is available in the structure and properties of carbon materials underscores their utilization in virtually all branches of science and engineering, ranging from high-technology applications to medicine and heavy industry. Moreover, the list of carbons that are currently available or are under development is impressive and is being continually extended. One of the fastest growing areas is in environmental applications, not the least because carbon is compatible with all forms of life. Enormous interest in carbon materials has emerged over the past several years driven by environmental awareness and regulation and the need to find relatively low-cost solutions for protection and remediation. In this respect, the materials of interest are predominantly activated carbons, although there are areas where nonporous carbons also offer advantages.