chapter  1
Anatomy and Physiology
Pages 30

Accepted dental formulas for the deciduous and permanent dentition in the dog1: • Deciduous teeth: (3 upper/3 lower incisors,

1 upper/1 lower canine, 3 upper/3 lower premolars) × 2 = 28 teeth.

• Permanent teeth: (3 upper/3 lower incisors, 1 upper/1 lower canine, 4 upper/4 lower premolars, 2 upper/3 lower molars) × 2 = 42 teeth. The modified Triadan system is the most

common numbering system in veterinary dentistry2. It provides a method of quick reference for verbal or written communication. Each quadrant is numbered as follows: • Right upper quadrant = 100 (500 when

referring to deciduous teeth). • Left upper quadrant = 200 (600 when

referring to deciduous teeth). • Left lower quadrant = 300 (700 when

referring to deciduous teeth). • Right lower quadrant = 400 (800 when

referring to deciduous teeth). Each tooth is assigned a number within each

quadrant. Beginning with 01 for the first incisor, teeth are consecutively numbered from mesial to distal. Since the dog has a full complement of permanent premolars, tooth numbering is consecutive from 01 to 10 on the maxilla and 01 to 11 on the mandible. Taking the quadrant and tooth number into consideration, three numbers are used to identify a specific tooth. For example, the permanent left upper canine tooth is referred to as tooth 204. The deciduous left upper canine is tooth 604 (1A, B).