DEFINITION A tooth fracture that does not result in direct pulp exposure. These fractures involve loss of enamel and some underlying dentin. (Tooth fractures that involve or expose the pulp chamber or root canal are termed ‘complicated’ fractures.)
ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS Tooth fractures can result from excessive force applied to the crown of a tooth, or stresses that act on the tooth in a nonphysiological direction. A wide range of traumatic events can produce enough stress to fracture teeth. Uncomplicated crown fractures of canine and incisor teeth most commonly result from picking up rocks, or from contact with a hard surface while picking up other objects, but they can also result from impact against objects such as walls or other dogs’ teeth, and from chewing on fences or crates. Uncomplicated crown fractures of premolar and molar teeth most commonly result from mild-to-moderate bite force on hard objects such as bones, rocks, and hard chew toys; however, they can also occur from a forceful bite on a rawhide toy.