Biochar for Inorganic Contaminant Management in Waste and Wastewater
In many parts of the world, continuous withdrawal of freshwater for various activities, including irrigation, have led to unsustainable rates of water consumption, which is not assisted by declining rainfall and increased rationing of water to the ecosystem services (Kunhikrishnan et al. 2012). Communities, particularly primary producers, are compelled to improve water-use efficiency and use alternative water supplies, including recycled wastewater sources, for irrigation. Using wastewater for irrigation raises concerns about public exposure to pathogens and contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater. However, under controlled management, these water sources can be used safely and profitably for irrigation (Drechsel et al. 2010).