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2 Pages

Introduction and Historical Perspective

Ion exchange is probably one of the most widely used scientific phenomena in the world today, with applications in chemistry, biochemistry, manufacturing, soil-water interactions, medicine, and industrial and municipal water treatment, to name just a few. Specialized applications such as demineralization, deioniza­ tion, industrial water treatment, and chemical and water recovery are common. By following the historical development of ion exchange, one can learn about the natural and synthetic ion exchange materials used and developed through the years — many of these naturally occurring substances are now being evaluated as throw-away materials for ion exchange because of the problems associated with the handling and disposal of ion exchange regeneration wastewaters.