Chapter Environment of Use
This chapter describes the environmental issues that need to be considered in the process of designing effective and safe medical devices. It is important to recognize that the physical environment is only one element of the work system in which devices are used (Vincent, Taylor-Adams, and Stanhope, 1998; Weinger and Englund, 1990; Wiklund, 1995). According to Smith and Carayon (Carayon and Smith, 2000; Smith and Carayon-Sainfort, 1989), the work system is comprised of ve elements: (1) the individual (end user), (2) tasks, (3) tools and technologies (including the medical devices), (4) physical environment, and (5) organizational conditions. In this chapter, we focus on the effects of the physical environment on end users and the interaction between the physical environment and a particular type of technology: medical devices.