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These descriptions of pulses in an extended matching question (EMQ) are highly suggestive of the conditions described (Box 1).

Irregularly irregular Atrial fibrillation Slow-rising pulse Aortic stenosis Collapsing pulse Aortic regurgitation Bounding pulse Acute CO2 retention, hepatic failure, sepsis Radiofemoral delay Coarctation of aorta Jerky pulse Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

Mitral regurgitation Pulsus bisferiens Mixed aortic valve disease

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy Pulsus paradoxus Constrictive pericarditis

Cardiac tamponade

The descriptions of the jugular venous pressure (JVP) in Box 2, often given in an EMQ, are highly suggestive of the conditions described.