Specific Aspects of Civil Structures and Construction
A nuclear power plant consists of various facilities, systems, components, machinery, equipment, piping, ducting, etc. They are arranged systematically within the plant layout in such a manner that the overall construction and operating costs are minimized while meeting certain safety criteria. Regarding the safety criteria, the layout should be such that the redundant safety systems, along with their instrumentation and support feature, have sufficient physical separation so that in case of any accident, one does not jeopardize the availability of other systems. The plant layout is designed to isolate all the items important to safety from unacceptable hazards by using structural features of the plant/buildings. The plant should be designed to facilitate easy access for operations, inspection calibrations, maintenance, and repairs of equipment with a view to limit the exposure of plant personnel and the spread of contaminations. Thus, in the construction of a nuclear power plant, the plant layout plays the most crucial role in facilitating simple construction, safe operation and maintenance, and access for repair.