chapter  3
Diagnostic Procedures Prior to Surgery and ART
Pages 46

Any infertility evaluation of reproductive potential includes both direct and indirect evaluations of structure and function with radiologic and endoscopic techniques and emerging molecular technologies. Interest in using images to evaluate the female reproductive tract dates to the start of the clinical use of xrays. These attempts progressed from intrauterine insufflation with oxygen, as described by Rubin in the 1920s, through hysterosalpingography (HSG) in the 1930s to contemporary sensitive and specific cross-sectional imaging techniques such as two-(2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) transvaginal ultrasound, sonohysterography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).