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In situ environmental transmission electron microscopy of gas phase Ziegler-Natta catalytic polymerization of propylene

Fig. 3 shows a typical kinetic curve of local PP thickness versus time with an average growth rate of 0.18 nm/s. The linearity of the kinetic curve implies that, for the pressures employed here, the growing PP layer does not impede diffusion of propylene to the active sites at the polymer/catalyst interface for polymer thickness up to 150 nm.