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Direct specimen plane wave recovery for strong objects

ABSTRACT: Two approaches have been explored to exit-plane wavefimction recovery from focal series of micrographs of strongly scattering specimens, using simulated and experimental images. The linear filter approach used for thin specimens has been found useful for specimens causing phase shifts as large as π. More general iterative algorithms of the Gerchberg-Saxton type find the wavefimction successfully in simulations for specimens many times stronger still, but have not yet proved viable with experimental data.