In most text books, creep is associated with shrinkage, creep being the volumetric contraction associated with the application of a constant load, while shrinkage is the volumetric contraction associated with a non-loaded specimen of concrete.We have deliberately excluded creep from this chapter, in spite of its great importance in practical applications in pre-stressed and post-tensioned structural elements because:
• This book is essentially a “materials” book and not a “structures” book. • The physico-chemical phenomena that explain creep are still the subject
of considerable scientiﬁc debate. However, nano-indentation tests (Acker et al., 2004) have clearly shown that the movement of water in C-S-H under the application of a constant load is somehow involved in creep.