chapter  10
20 Pages

The evolution of crime mapping in the United States: from the descriptive to the analytic

Lawenforcementofficersandciviliancrimeanalystshavebeenmapping crimevirtuallysincethetimethatpoliceagencieswereestablished.Historically,however,suchmappingwasachievedthroughtheuseofpushpins andapapermap.ThediffusionofGISintocrimeanalysishasbeenaslow processprimarilybecauseofcost(bothhardwareandsoftware)andcomplexity.Intheearly1970s,technologicaladvancementsincomputersmade computerisedmappingaccessibleonlytothelargestandmostinnovative ofpoliceagencies.However,thesesystemsrequiredexpensive,highpoweredmainframecomputersandtrainedpersonneltorunthem.