APPLICATION OF THE ELEMENT TO COMPOSITE BEAMS
The element layers are connected by introducing springs between the layers. The spring stiffnesses can be modelled relative to the shear-slip characteristics on the unit length of the connection. Where studs are concerned, the spring stiffnesses can be derived from the load-slip curves of a standard push test. When analysing beams having stud spacings 0.5 .. 1.0 times the depth of the steel member, the element lengths can be selected directly according to the spacing of the studs, and hence the spring stiffnesses match the shear stiffness of one row of connectors. For deeper beams, lumped spring stiffnesses can be arranged when element lengths greater than the stud spacing are employed.