chapter
56 Pages

Fluid coupling

PFC3D (Particle Flow Code in 3 Dimensions, Itasca 2003) is used for this study because it can perform both steady-state and dynamic simulations, and offers a flexible interface language, which enables users to make their own constitutive models for the solid-fluid system. Figure 1 shows the basic system of force transmission between two solid particles through collision or contact in PFC3D.