124 Pages

Lab/element tests

The constitutive model utilized within this study to describe the particle interaction is an elasto-plastic contact model that is characterized by normal and shear springs at the particle contacts.The Particle Flow Code, PFC (Itasca 1999), that is used in this study was developed by Cundall (1971) and is based on the DEM but restricted to modeling rigid spherical particles (Cundall & Strack 1979).