Mass loss experience with ASTM C 666: With and without deicing salt
Damage to concrete from repeated cycles of freezing and thawing generally manifest s itself i n two forms : disintegration o f th e concret e mas s an d scaling o f th e concret e surface. I n the past, disintegration wa s considered to b e the more seriou s problem. Improvements i n concret e (lowe r w/c , addition s o f pozzolans , an d us e o f air - entraining admixtures) has for the most part eliminated occurrences of disintegration, while th e increase d use o f deicin g salt s alon g wit h increased construction i n areas exposed t o seawate r ha s le d t o a n increase d awarenes s o f surfac e scalin g a s a significant deterioratio n phenomenon . Thi s shif t i n perception o f th e predominan t manifestation o f frost-relate d deterioratio n ha s le d t o a nee d t o re-examin e tes t methods used to develop frost-resistant concrete mixtures.