chapter  11
44 Pages

Tool Steels

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................693

Tool steels are very special steels used to shape, cut, and form an extremely wide variety of

metals and othermaterials under demanding conditions. The first known toolmade of iron date

back 60 centuries. The heat treatment to harden tool iron, consisting of heating and water

carbon steel.

In the mid-19th century and early in the 20th century, highly alloyed tool steels were developed

to meet very stringent requirements for specific applications. This evolution was taking place in

parallel with the understanding of the benefit of the alloying elements such as manganese,

tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, and chromium, and their availability. In parallel to this

evolution, steelmaking evolved toward more controlled conditions to improve the quality and

cleanliness of the tool steels. This advance in technology and knowledge allows designing

specialized tool steels for cold and hot working of metals, molding plastics, as well as for

many other special purposes. This chapter reviewsmanufacturing andheat treatment of various

types of tool steels to achieve the required properties for specific applications.