chapter  1
32 Pages

Formaldehyde-Free Durable Press Finishing

I. Introduction 2

II. Glyoxal 4 A. Early studies 4 B. Glyoxal-glycol mild cure processes 5 C. High-temperature processes 6 D. Appraisal of glyoxal as a finishing agent 7

III. Other Aldehydes 7 A. Performance relative to conventional agents 7 B. Appraisal of alternative aldehydes as finishing agents 8

IV. Acetals of Monoaldehydes and Dialdehydes 8 A. Types of acetals effective 8 B. Appraisal of acetal finishes 9

V. Adducts of Glyoxal with Ureas and Amides 10 A. The cyclic adduct with A^Af'-dimethylurea 10 B. Appraisal of DHDMI as a DP finishing agent 12 C. Polymeric adducts of glyoxal with urea D. Assessment of polymeric glyoxal-urea adducts as finishing

agents 13 E. Adducts of dialdehydes with amides 13 F. Appraisal of dialdehyde-amide adducts as finishing agents 14 G. Adducts of glyoxal monoacetals with ureas 14 H. Appraisal of glyoxal monoacetal adducts with ureas 15

VI. Phosphoric or Phosphonic Acids and Their Salts 15 A. Processes studied 15 B. Appraisal of phosphorylation processes as a method of

finishing 16

VII. Polycarboxylic Acids 16 A. Features of ester-type cross-link formation 16 B. Base catalysis of ester-type cross-linking 17 C. High-speed esterification catalysts 18 D. Finishing with 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid 19 E. Mechanism of base-catalyzed cross-linking by polycarboxylic

acids 20 F. Phosphorus-free weak-base catalysts 21 G. Citric acid finishing 23 H. Reactive activators for a-hydroxy acids 24 I. Malic acid as a DP finishing agent 25 J. Maleic acid and its polymers as finishing agents 26

K. Appraisal of polycarboxylic acids as DP finishing agents 27

References 29

I. INTRODUCTION Chemical treatments applied to cellulosic textiles to impart wrinkle resistance, permanent creases, shrinkage resistance, and smooth drying properties are often referred to as durable press (DP), easy care, or wash-wear finishes. Such dimen­ sional stabilization or shape fixation processes are applied to yams, fabrics, or entire garments made of cotton or its blends with polyester. DP finishes are also applied to textiles of rayon or other forms of regenerated wood cellulose. Occa­ sionally, fabrics of linen and ramie are treated. Chemical finishes for wool, a protein fiber, have made launderable wool garments a commercial reality. The DP finishing of silk, likewise a protein material, has been the subject of promising recent research and development [1].