chapter  20
68 Pages

Application of Toxicology in Food Safety Assessment: Food Additives (Aluminum), Melamine, and Phthalates (Di[2-Ethylhexyl]phthalate)

Risk analysis is defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) as “a process consisting of three components: risk assessment, risk management and risk communication” [1]. Risk analysis is applied to help recognize potential situations that might have adverse effects on human health at an early stage

and to making best use of available information to plan cost-effective preventive or ameliorating measures. A food safety risk analysis is essential not only to produce or manufacture the highest-quality goods and products to ensure safety and protect public health but also to comply with international and national standards and market regulations. With the application of risk analysis, food safety systems can be strengthened and food-related illnesses reduced [2]. The three components are essential, highly integrated and complementary to each other in the risk analysis framework. A typical food safety risk analysis framework emphasizes the functional separation of its three components, while demanding the need for communication and interactions between those with responsibility for each of the three components at the same time [3]. A functional separation of risk assessment is necessary to ensure the scientific objectivity of the risk assessment process and reduce any conflict of interest between science and policy considerations. On the other hand, interactions between risk managers and risk assessors are essential for a full understanding of the issues and to maximize the utility of scientific evidence from the risk assessment process [2]. In the process of food safety risk analysis, almost constant interactions occur between risk managers and risk assessors within an environment characterized by risk communication [4].