Quik Study Guide This chapter has two distinct parts, the paradox in arti…cial intelligent
(AI) and the architecture for a new type of AI agents. Those who are not interested in AI building or do not have a computer science or AI background may choose to skip the second part. The idea of AI was proposed by Alan Turing in the Turing Machine. There
are great debates on whether any computer can be built to perform like a human. I assert this can simply be a de…nitional problem, as illustrated by the “Ship of Theseus.”The possibility of building “machine-race”humans is discussed through paradoxes of emotion, understanding, and discovery. The possibility is further illustrated by the paradox of dreams, the paradox of meta-cognition, and recent developments in swarm intelligence. There are several fundamental di¤erences between the proposed AI ap-
proach and the existing AI approaches: (1) The new AI has very limited built-in initial concepts (only 14)— virtually an initial empty brain, whereas traditional AI has a built-in knowledge database and/or complex algorithms. (2) The new AI is language-independent, whereas traditional AI is languagedependent (English and Chinese AIs have di¤erent architecture). (3) Unlike traditional AI, the new AI is based on the recursion of simple rules over multiple levels in learning. (4) The new AI’s learning largely depends on progressive teaching: It can learn very broadly about many things but it is slow, whereas traditional methods have a fast learning speed but a narrow learning scope.