This chapter provides an overview of the basic digital holography (DH) process, construction geometries, recording techniques to overcome camera resolution issues, and highlights of applications that have benefited from this form of holography. Some of the most active areas of research in the field of DH focus on overcoming the relatively limited resolution of cameras, the development of reconstruction algorithm, and adapting DH to different applications. The chapter highlights the activities and reviews some specialized applications in microscopy. One of the most important applications of DH is in microscopy. The principle of multiple wavelength DH and microscopy follows from the basic relations for single wavelength holography. Digital or electronic holography was first demonstrated in the late 1960s and has since become a major form of holography with a broad range of applications. Several configurations have been demonstrated for recording digital holograms that satisfy the Nyquist sampling condition.