chapter  12
8 Pages

Section 12: GMO: Genetically modified organisms

Various scientists have defined the transgenic breeding process. All living organisms are made up of cells that contain a substance called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The structures of DNA molecules, whose units are called genes, contain information that is used by cells as a “recipe” for the organism. In the last 20 years, scientists discovered that DNA is interchangeable among animals, plants, bacteria, and other organisms. In addition to using traditional breeding methods of improving plants and animals through crossbreeding and selection, scientists in some cases can now transfer the genes that determine many desirable traits from one plant or animal to another. The transfer of DNA is done by various methods, such as direct injection of the cells with DNA or literally shooting cells with DNA-covered particles from a


The introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the 1980s has caused concern both in the scientific community and especially with consumers lacking scientific knowledge in this very complex subject. This section does not take sides in this issue but attempts to look at the implications for IP systems.