chapter  10
20 Pages

Forest Plots

Forest plots show the estimates (e.g., mean values, odds ratios, hazard ratios, etc.) and the amount of variation (e.g., 95% confidence intervals) at different endpoints (measurement time, studies, adverse event, etc.). Forest plots in various forms have been published for more than 20 years, but have gained identity and popularity in the past 15 years (Bursac, 2010). In clinical research, forest plots can be used to display the mean and its associated 95% confidence interval (CI) for treatment difference from different endpoints in efficacy analyses and to display the odds ratio and its associated 95% CI for different adverse events (AE) in safety data analyses.