Science of Footwear Design
The right ™t and point-of-sale comfort are primary factors when purchasing footwear (Cheskin 1987; Chong and Chan 1992; McEvoy 1996; Au and Goonetilleke 2005). Among 420 European consumers, it has been reported that 51.5% of males and 58.8% of females had ™t-related issues with footwear (Piller 2002). Ill-™tting footwear contribute toward discomfort, foot deformities, and even injuries (Cavanagh 1980; Cheskin 1987; Clarks 1989) and researchers have been exploring ways to improve the foot-shoe compatibility, and thereby comfort, by investigating foot anthropometrics, biomechanics, and perceptual aspects. Recent developments in three-dimensional (3D) digitalization technologies (Treleaven 2004) and the development of footwear-speci™c CAD/CAM systems (Chen 1988; Bao, Soundar, and Yang 1994) are helping the drive toward improving compatibility through the use of mass customization methodologies (Viavor 2007). This chapter is aimed at providing an understanding of foot anthropometry and foot shape, so that they can be built into shoes that are comfortable to wear. A case study of how to design boots is also presented.