chapter  5
42 Pages

- Niacin

In Vivo ....................................................................................................... 169 5.5.8 Niacin Status and Health .......................................................................................... 170

5.5.8.1 Niacin and Carcinogenesis......................................................................... 170 5.5.8.2 Niacin and Oxidant Lung Injury ................................................................ 173 5.5.8.3 Niacin and Skin Health .............................................................................. 173 5.5.8.4 Niacin and Mental Health .......................................................................... 174 5.5.8.5 Niacin and Cardiovascular Disease ........................................................... 174

5.6 Competition for NAD+ during Niacin Deciency ................................................................ 175 5.7 Pharmacology and Toxicology ............................................................................................. 178

5.7.1 Nicotinic Acid ........................................................................................................... 178 5.7.2 Nicotinamide ............................................................................................................ 179 5.7.3 Potential Risks of High-Niacin Status ...................................................................... 180

5.8 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 180 Acknowledgments .......................................................................................................................... 180 References ...................................................................................................................................... 180

The identication of niacin as a vitamin resulted from an urgent need to cure pellagra, which ravaged low socioeconomic groups of the Southeastern United States in the early 20th century and various European populations for the previous two centuries [1,2]. Corn had been introduced to Europe from the Americas and quickly became a staple food, as it could produce more calories per acre than wheat or rye. In 1735, the Spanish physician Casal became the rst to describe the strange new disease, which he termed mal de la rosa (disease of the rose) and the characteristic rash around the neck of pellagrins is still referred to as “Casal’s necklace.” The disease spread geographically with the cultivation of corn and became known as pelle agra (rough skin) in Italy.