Botanicals in Sun Care Products
Botanicals of Specific Interest 659
Botanically Derived Sunscreens and SPF Boosters 659
Botanicals as Photochemoprotective Agents 660
Botanicals in Sun Care Products 661
Quality Control: Methods of Analysis 661
Recent Research Techniques: Biological Assays and
Cell Culture 665
Biological Assays of Interest for Screening Botanicals in
Sun Care Products 666
Sun exposure has long been considered a healthy benefit of outdoor activity.
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can stimulate vitamin D synthesis in
the body and may promote immune tolerance toward certain antigens such as
myelin autoantigens (1). Conversely, epidemiological data confirmed by research
of the last 20 years have shown that exposure to UVR is a major risk factor for
various skin cancers, premature aging of the skin commonly referred to as
photoaging, and alteration of the skin’s immune functions (2). More recently,
research has shown that although sunlight and oxygen are essential for life,
exposure to UVR and infrared radiation can potentially induce reactive oxygen
species (ROS) in cutaneous tissue (3-5). ROS are considered to be a major
factor in skin aging, cancer, and other conditions that effect the health of skin.
ROS react with proteins, DNA, and unsaturated fatty acids leading to oxidative
damage and immunosuppression.