chapter  37
16 Pages

Modern Analytical Techniques in the Sunscreen Industry

Introduction 752

Separation Techniques 753

Physicochemical Methods 753

Extractions 753

Distillations 754

Sublimations 754

Chromatographic Methods 754

Gas Chromatography 754

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 755

Headspace (Purge and Trap) 755

Ion Chromatography 755

Identification Techniques 755

Chemical Methods 755

Chromatographic Methods 756

Gas Chromatography/Retention Time 756 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Data System 756 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Retention Time 756 Headspace/Gas Chromatography/Retention Time 756

Spectroscopic Methods 756

Mass Spectrometry 756

Infrared Spectroscopy 757

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 757

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 757

In Vitro Sun Protection Factor Analyzers 758

New Analytical Techniques 758

GC and GC/MS Ancillary Methods 760 Fast GC 760

GC Racer 760

Retention Time Locking 760

Programmable Temperature Vaporizing Inlet 761

Simplified 2-D GC 761

Solid Phase Microextraction 761

Gerstel Twister and Thermodesorption 762

Mass Spectrometer-Selective Ion Monitoring 762

Atomic Emission Detector 762

HPLC Ancillary Methods 763

Fast HPLC 763

Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 763 Other Methods 763

Supercritical Fluid Extraction 763

Inductively Coupled Plasma 763

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 764

X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Auger Electron) 764

Conclusions 764

References 765


Excessive exposure to the harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun leads to pre-

mature aging of the skin, photoallergies, and ultimately, malignant melanoma

and skin cancer (this volume, chapters by Nelson and Diffey). The increased

use of UV filters for protection has become of paramount importance in our

daily lives. Scientists have been busy during the last two decades researching

novel ingredients and techniques to reduce the spiraling statistics in the prolifer-

ation of skin cancer, estimated today to top 1.5 million new cases annually in

the USA alone. Primary to this research effort has been the development of

new ultraviolet filters. Both organic sunscreens and inorganic sunscreens have

been developed and incorporated into a variety of cosmetic formulations contain-

ing a plethora of other ingredients to enhance and boost protection.