chapter  1
16 Pages

Sunscreen Evolution

Historical Background 4

Skin Cancer and the Solar Spectrum 5

Sunscreen Products 6

Issues and Challenges Facing the Sunscreen Industry 6

Regulatory and Safety Issues 6

Sun Protection Factor 7

The Region in the UV Spectrum 7

Water Resistance 7

Photostability and Photoreactivity 7

Safety and Stability 8

Manufacturing and Quality Control 8

Cosmetic Formulation Issues 9

Formula Types 9

Formula Optimization 9

Active Ingredients 9

Other Ingredients 10

Marketing Issues 12

Sunscreen Products for the 21st Century 12

UV Filters 12

Natural Ingredients 13

Biologically Active Ingredients 14

Cosmetic Formulations 14

Conclusions 15

References 16

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

In Ancient Egypt the cult of the sun god Ra provided a sun-centered cosmology

where Egyptians bowed in worship to the powerful effects of the life-giving sun.

The Ancient Egyptians were well aware of the dangers of the sun. Their lands

were scorched with heat. Women protected their skin, preferring light skin to

dark in their cultural hierarchy of beauty (1). Recent discoveries written on

papyri and the walls of several tombs unearthed ingredients and formulations

in use in Ancient Egypt specifically addressing issues of sun damage to the

hair and skin (2,3).