MR Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Physiology and Metabolism
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is becoming increasingly important in providing biomarkers for detecting cancer, and managing cancer treatment. As a tool for basic discovery, MRS methods provide valuable information on tumor physiology and metabolism. In this era of targeted molecular medicine, MRS methods provide an understanding of the e›ects of down-regulation of speciœc targets on downstream changes in physiology and metabolism that are a rich source to mine for noninvasive biomarkers associated with molecular targets. In understanding and treating a complex disease such as cancer, the multiparametric capabilities of MRS, its ability to transition from bench to bedside, and the feasibility of combining MRS with other imaging modalities make it valuable for molecular and functional imaging of cancer. In this chapter, we begin by providing qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the technique, before reviewing recent in vivo applications of MRS and MRS imaging (MRSI) in preclinical models, and the current clinical uses of MRS techniques for diagnosis and in the assessment of therapy e—cacy.